The difference between the speaker and the receiver 喇叭與受話器的不同
The basic structure of the speaker and the receiver is almost the same; the diaphragm generates the sound by the reaction upon the sound coil and magnet. The main diversities are as below: The different usage ?Depend on the size of the speaker; the distance between the speaker and the user’s ears is normally from several dozens of centimeters to several meters. However we always nestle up a receiver against our ears.
The different material of the diaphragm and the sound coil ?In order to bear the higher power, the diaphragm of the speaker is usually thicker than the receiver, the thinnest one is 18u. The larger of the dimension and the power is the heavier the diaphragm will be. ?The receiver takes the lower power, but requests for better low frequency curve; therefore we usually use the diaphragm with the thickness from 6u-12u. ?Besides the diaphragm, the receiver often works with a piece of paper or cloth to adjust the frequency response, which can help to meet all kinds of standards or to match up the resonant box of the mechanism.
The different electronic characteristic ?We often see the speaker with impedance of 4-8ohm, the too high impedance leads to the higher power to drive the speaker, normally is from 0.2W to several dozens of watt. ?Depend on the circuit design, the impedance of the receiver is from 16, 32 to 150ohm. The general power is only from 0.01W to 0.1W.
The difference between the speaker and the receiver 喇叭與受話器的不同
喇叭(Speaker)與受話器(Receiver)的基本構造是大同小異的,都是透過音圈與磁鐵的作用 力,帶動振動膜來發聲, 有幾點較大差異如下: 使用上的不同: 喇叭通常是離使用者的耳機有幾十公分甚至幾十公尺的距離,視喇叭的大小不同而定, 而受話器是緊貼著耳朵來使用的, 膜片,音圈等材質不同: 喇叭需承受較大的功率,故膜片厚度都較厚,從最薄的18u開始,尺寸愈大,功率愈大,膜片就 會愈厚重, 受話器的功率小,但要求低頻曲線要好,故一般採用6u-12u的膜片, 除了膜片之外,受話器通常會加貼調音紙或調音布,來調整頻率響應,以符合各種的規範或 是來配合機構的共嗚腔. 電氣特性上的不同: 喇叭最常見的為4-8ohm,太高的阻抗會使喇叭需要更高的電壓才能驅動,0.2W到幾十W都 有 受話器從16,32,64ohm到150ohm都有,端看客戶的線路設計匹配,一般的功率只有0.01W 到0.1W,
Buzzer / 蜂鳴器
Piezo VS. Magnetic 壓電與電磁式的比較 Buzzer circuits 蜂鳴器的驅動方式 The difference between the self drive and external drive buzzers 自激 式與他激式蜂鳴器的差別 The buzzer has noise 蜂鳴器有雜音 How to choose a buzzer 如何選用蜂鳴器 What is buzzer (From Wikipedia) Buzzer and Speaker 蜂鳴器與喇叭的比較 如何固定壓電蜂鳴片 How to mounting piezo element
r & Magnetic buzzer feature table
Size ResonantFrequency OperatingVoltage SoundLevel CurrentConsumption
B i g (10-50mm) H i g h (2-6KHz) H i g h (9-24V) L o u d e r (85-120dB) L o w (5-20mA)
S m a l l (6-25mm) L o w (1-3KHz) L o w (1.5-12V) L o w e r (70-95dB) H i g h (35-60mA)
There are two types of buzzers, piezo and magnetic type. A piezo buzzer generates sound because of the piezoelectric effect from the piezoelectric ceramic which drives the metallic diaphragm to vibrate. A magnetic buzzer is based on the electromagnetic principle, the metal diaphragm is pulled when input the power, and spring back without power. The piezo buzzer is driven by square waves, and the magnetic buzzer needs 1/2 square waves to drive. We suggest inputting higher voltage for a piezo buzzer, normally over 9V to have enough SPL. On the other hand, a magnetic buzzer can be driven to generate 85 dB by only 1.5V, but the consumption of the current will be much higher than Piezo one. To compare the two types of buzzers, the magnetic type can have lower frequency response with the same dimension. Though being limited by the dimension, the SPL of a magnetic buzzer can only reach to 90 dB. The piezo buzzer can achieve the SPL of 120 dB in some spec., some larger size can also easily reach to 100 dB.
蜂鳴器分為壓電式及電磁式的二大類, 壓電式蜂鳴器是以壓電陶瓷的壓電效應,來帶動金屬片的振動而發聲, 電磁式的蜂鳴器,則是用電磁的原理,通電時將金屬振動膜吸下,不通電時依振動膜的彈力彈回, 故壓電式蜂鳴器是以方波來驅動,電磁式是1/2方波驅動, 壓電式蜂鳴器需要比較高的電壓才能有足夠的音壓,一般建議為9V以上, 電磁式蜂鳴器,用1.5V就可以發出85dB以上的音壓了,唯消耗電流會大大的高於壓電式蜂鳴器, 而在相同的尺寸時,電磁式的蜂鳴器,響應頻率可以做的比較低. 電磁式蜂鳴器的音壓一般最多到90dB, 壓電的有些規格,可以達到120dB以上,較大尺寸的也很容易達到100dB
Buzzer circuits 蜂鳴器的驅動線路
For a self- drive buzzer ( DC/ circuit- built), either pizeo or magnetic just apply the rated current and voltage. ?For the external-drive buzzer, it depends on, 1. We should give magnetic buzzer 1/2 square wave, and provide it at least 3 times the amount of the rated consumptive current. 2. Otherwise, we give square wave to the peizo buzzer instead of 1/2 square wave, because the half wave might cause the buzzer does not work. Therefore, voltage control is an important factor for a peizo buzzer which is driven by the voltage.
若是自激式Self-drive (DC/內含線路circuit-bulit in )的蜂鳴器,不管是電磁,還是壓電的,給予額定的電流 及電壓即可, 而外激式External的蜂鳴器,因為工作原理的不同,) 電磁式蜂鳴器(Magnetic Buzzer)應給予1/2方波(square wave),及在
啟動時,確保至少有三倍於額定消 耗電流的電流, 壓電式蜂鳴器(Piezo Buzzer)的則給予方波, 若給1/2方波,極可能不會動作,因為只有半週的動作, 由於壓電式蜂鳴器,是靠電壓驅動,電壓的控制是重要的因素.
The difference between the self drive and external drive buzzers 自激式 與他激式蜂鳴器的差別
The difference between the self drive and external drive buzzers Depend on the driving signal, the buzzer divide into self drive and external drive. However inner circuit/ no circuit, DC/ AC, and active/ passive are all mean the same. The design of the self drive buzzer is to set the circuit inside the buzzer and just offer the direct current to work. The inner circuit has the designed frequency and voltage for the buzzer to generate sound, therefore the frequency of the self drive buzzer is fixed. However the frequency is still different from each buzzer, normally is 2300Hz, the acceptable range is +/-300Hz. However, the external drive buzzer needs to be drove by the signal of 1/2 square wave V 0-p (magnetic type), or square wave V p-p (piezo buzzer) It is convenient to use a self drive buzzer, but the disadvantages are the higher cost, the higher defective rate and the unchangeable frequency. The comparison between self and external drive buzzer:
Cost Self drive buzzer External drive buzzer High Low
Defective rate High Low
Frequency Unchangeable Changeable
Convenience Need only voltage plus oscillate circuit
依照驅動信號的不同,蜂鳴器分為自激式及他激式二類,有很多不同說法,但指的都是這二種分類, 如:內含(不含)線路,直流DC/交流AC Type, 有源(無源), 自激式的蜂鳴器是將驅動線路直接設計到蜂鳴器中,故只需給予直流電壓, 內含的驅動線路,就會產生設計好的頻率及電壓給蜂鳴器發聲,所以自激式的頻率是固定的. 但每顆蜂鳴器間的頻率仍會有些差異,一般常見的是2300Hz, 頻率上下300Hz都算可接受的範圍, 而他激的蜂鳴器,需由外部線路給予1/2方波V 0-p(電磁式),或方波Vp-p(壓電式)的信號,才會發聲, 在使用上用自激式的蜂鳴器有其方便的地方,但因為成本及不良率較高,且頻率不可調整,
The buzzer has noise 蜂鳴器有雜音
When the sound which the buzzer generates is not a clear beep sound, we call it noise or broken sound. There are two possible ways to cause the noise. Improperly used ?If the voltage we input is too high, the diaphragm will easily touch other components, which causes the noise. ?When we set the wrong frequency instead of the rated frequency is easy to have noise. For example, if the rated frequency is 2730Hz, but the user input 2400Hz, the noise appears easily, especially within the range 10% ahead of the rated frequenc
y. Disqualified ?A diaphragm of the buzzer is just set on the braces not firmly attached. Therefore the external force will move the diaphragm and result in the noise. ?When we assemble the buzzer, or in the process of user’s production line, if there are some iron chippings invade into the buzzer, the noise will also be caused.
當蜂鳴器發出的聲音,不是清脆且單純的嗶聲時,我們會稱為是雜音,或是破音, 蜂鳴器雜音的成因,可分為二種可能, 使用不當: 給予蜂鳴器的電壓過高: 使膜片敲打到內部的其他零件,產生零件撞擊的聲音, 使用的頻率不對: 未將頻率設訂在額定頻率上 , 例如規格是 2730Hz , 使用者卻給 2400Hz 就很容易有異音 , 尤其 在額定頻率前10% 範圍最會產生異音. 品質不良: 膜片異位: 電磁式蜂鳴器的膜片是"放"而非黏在支架上,故有可能因為激烈的外力使膜片跑出該在的定點,而造成雜 音. 有異物侵入: 在組裝蜂鳴器,或是使用者的產線加工時,若有小鐵粉,鐵屑進入蜂鳴器內部,也會造成雜音的發生.
How to choose the buzzer 如何選用蜂鳴器
There are many different kinds of buzzer to choose, first we need to know a few parameters, such as voltage, current, drive method, dimension, mounting type, and the most important thing is how much SPL and frequency we want. Operating voltage: Normally, the operating voltage for a magnetic buzzer is from 1.5V to 24V, for a piezo buzzer is from 3V to 220V. However, in order to get enough SPL, we suggest giving at least 9V to drive a piezo buzzer. Consumption current: According to the different voltage, the consumption current of a magnetic buzzer is from dozens to hundreds of mill amperes; oppositely, the piezo type saves much more electricity, only needs a few mill amperes, and consumes three times current when the buzzer start to work. Driving method: Both magnetic and piezo buzzer have self drive type to choose. Because of the internal set drive circuit, the self drive buzzer can emit sound as long as connecting with the direct current. Due to the different work principle, the magnetic buzzer need to be driven by 1/2 square waves, and the piezo buzzer need square waves to get better sound output. Dimension: The dimension of the buzzer affects its SPL and the frequency, the dimension of the magnetic buzzer is from 7 mm to 25 mm; the piezo buzzer is from 12 mm to 50 mm, or even bigger.
Connecting way: Dip type, Wire type, SMD type, and screwed type for big piezo buzzer are usually seen.
SPL: Buzzer is usually tested the SPL at the distance of 10 cm, if distance double, the SPL will decay about 6 dB; oppositely, the SPL will increase 6 dB when the distance is shortened by one time. The SPL of the magnetic buzzer can reach to around 85 dB/ 10 cm; the piezo buzzer can be designed to emit very loud sound, for example, the common siren, are mostly made of piezo buzzer.
How to choose the buzzer 如何選用蜂鳴器
鳴器的種類規格繁多,需先知道幾個參數 ( 電壓,電流,驅動方式,尺寸,連接/固定方式),當然更重要的是,想要獲的聲音 (音 壓大小,頻率高低), 工作電壓: 電磁式的蜂鳴器, 從1.5到24V, 壓電式的從3V到220V都是可行的,但一般壓電的還是建議有9V以上的電壓,以獲 得較大的聲音. 消耗電流: 電磁式的依電壓的不同,從幾十到上百毫安培都有,壓電式的就省電的多,幾毫安培就可以正常的動作, 且在蜂鳴 器啟動時,瞬間需消耗約三倍的電流, 驅動方式: 二種蜂鳴器都有自激式的,只要接上直流電(DC)即可發聲,因為已內建了驅動線路在蜂鳴器中了,因為動作原理的 不同,電磁式蜂鳴器要用1/2方波來驅動,壓電的用方波,才能有較好的聲音輸出. 尺寸: 蜂鳴器的尺寸會影響到音量的大小,頻率的高低,電磁式的最小從7mm到最大的25mm,壓電式的從12mm到50mm或 更大都有. 連接方式: 一般常見的有插針(DIP), 焊線(Wire), 貼片(SMD), 壓電式大顆的還有鎖螺絲的方式. 音壓: 蜂鳴器常以10cm的距離做為測試的標準,距離增加一倍,大概會衰減6dB, 反之距離縮短一倍則會增加6dB,電磁式蜂 鳴器大約能達到85dB / 10cm的水準,壓電式的就可以做的很大聲,常見的警報器,大都是以壓電蜂鳴器製成.
以苙翔的料號, 用量最大的電磁式蜂鳴器AC-1205G為例 A = AATC C = 一體式,底部有封環氧樹脂的蜂鳴器, 另有AS = 分體式,底部沒封膠,一般頻率為2000左右,不可過錫爐. AX表內含驅動 線路(自激式).AD表SMD的. 12 = 直徑,單位是mm, 還有6.7, 9.0, 9.6, 14, 16, 25mm的,並有多種高度選擇 05 = 額定工作電壓, 還有1.5, 3.0, 3.5, 5, 6, 9, 12, 24V. G = 直流阻抗 壓電式的以AZ-1440S-P為例 A = AATC 苙翔科技 Z = Piezo 壓電式蜂鳴器 14 = 直徑, 10, 12, 14, 16, 17,.....50規格非常多. 40 = 額定的頻率, 40表4KHz, S = Self drive 自激式,內含線路的, E 表他激, 外部驅動. P = Pin type, 還有W- Wire, APD-SMD的
What is buzzer (From Wikipedia
A buzzer or beeper is a signalling device, usually electronic, typically used in automobiles, household appliances such as a microwave oven, or game shows. It most commonly consists of a number of switches or sensors connected to a control unit that determines if and which button was pushed or a preset time has lapsed, and usually illuminates a light on the appropriate button or control panel, and sounds a warning in the form of a continuous or intermittent buzzing or beeping sound. Initially this device was based on an electromechanical system which was identical to an electric bell without the metal gong (which makes the ringing noise). Often these units were anchored to a wall or ceiling and used the ceiling or wall as a sounding board. Another implementation with some AC-connected devices was to implement a circuit to make the AC current into a noise loud enough to drive a l
oudspeaker and hook this circuit up to a cheap 8-ohm speaker. Nowadays, it is more popular to use a ceramic-based piezoelectric sounder like a Sonalert which makes a high-pitched tone. Usually these were hooked up to "driver" circuits which varied the pitch of the sound or pulsed the sound on and off. In game shows it is also known as a "lockout system," because when one person signals ("buzzes in"), all others are locked out from signalling. Several game shows have large buzzer buttons which are identified as "plungers". The word "buzzer" comes from the rasping noise that buzzers made when they were electromechanical devices, operated from stepped-down AC line voltage at 50 or 60 cycles. Other sounds commonly used to indicate that a button has been pressed are a ring or a beep. Some systems, such as the one used on Jeopardy!, make no noise at all, instead using light.
Buzzer and Speaker 蜂鳴器與喇叭的比較
喇叭與蜂鳴器都是發出聲響的零件,若只是想發出一些警告音,提醒音, 這二者其實都是可以使用的: Buzzer and speaker are the acoustic components that can generate sound, if you just need sound to warn or remind, both of them are fine. 蜂鳴器分為電磁式及壓電式二大類,在耗電流,尺寸,頻率,驅動方式上有些不同, 但基本上都是將某一個頻點的音壓拉到最高,以期用最小的尺寸,就可以發出很高的音壓,若不在諧振點的音壓就 會很小,甚至會相差20dB以上, 且蜂鳴器的聲音,由於是用方波發出來的,人耳聽起來就比較刺耳一些, We divide buzzer into piezo and magnetic buzzer. There are some differences in power consumption, dimension, frequency and drive method between piezo and magnetic buzzer, however, both of them basically pull the SPL to the highest at a certain frequent point in order to generate as high SPL as possible in the small size. The SPL will be very low if it is not at the resonance point, even 20dB difference. By the way, the sound of buzzer is drove by square waves; therefore it is harsh to the human ears. 小喇叭是以弦波推動,相較於蜂鳴器人耳聽起來會舒服許多, 但因為頻寬較寬,可用的頻率也較低,故在同尺寸時,音壓一定會小於蜂鳴器, 且需要音箱的輔助來增進低頻的響應,不然整體的聲音會很小. Micro speaker is drove by the sine waves, to compare with buzzer, the sound is much more comfortable for us. However, the bandwidth is wider, and the frequency is lower, therefore, the micro speaker’s SPL must be lower than the buzzer with the same size, and also need enclosure to help the low frequency, otherwise the sound will be very small.
How to mounting piezo element 如何固定壓電蜂鳴片
Piezo Element The good points to choose piezo element is that the cost is lower than others and you can design the sound chamber to reach a special sound. However, during assemblage, the experienced skill of soldering wires is strictly demanded, otherwise l
arge defective products such as small sound, soundless, deviated frequency or electric leakage might happen. Defects are resulted from: Piezo element and chamber both have their resonance points. How to match the two resonance points to get loud SPL and wide frequency range, the mechanical design has become a test. Material, thickness, size and depth of the sound hole and the capacity of chamber are the factors which will affect the chamber’s resonance. The bad fix method There are two methods for fixing the piezo elements: Nodal mounting method This method is to fix the nodal diameter of buzzer element to the supporting ring of the plate; better SPL can be obtained. Finding the pivot and resonance frequency of element, then the piezo element will have max vibration and SPL. Circumference Fixing Method This method is to fix the outside circumference of the buzzer element to the supporting right of the plate. Wide frequency range can be obtained, and easier to design. For these two methods, flexible adhesive such as silicon should be used between the buzzer element and the support ring. Defective soldering During the soldering, the size and position of the solder point should be the same. The temperature and pressure should be well controlled to avoid badly soldering, which will cause short circuit or insufficient isolated impedance. Besides, the iron need to be separated for the two solder points, because the ceramic wafer contain a large amount of lead, using the same iron will cause the fail of RoHS test.
How to mounting piezo element 如何固定壓電蜂鳴片
有關壓電陶瓷蜂鳴片 選用壓電陶瓷蜂鳴片的好處是, 低成本,可自行設計音腔來達成特殊的聲音要求,但在組裝,焊線時 的技術要求較嚴,若無相關經驗或技術,可能會有大量的不良品產生,小聲,無聲,頻率偏差,漏電都有 可能會發生.這些不良大都起因於: 蜂鳴片固定方式不良 蜂鳴片常見的固定方式有二種, 節點固定(左圖):可以獲得較高的音壓,但需知道蜂鳴片的諧振頻率,找到片子振動的支點,使蜂鳴片 可產生最大的振動,就可達到最大的音壓, 圓週固定(右圖):可以獲得較寬的頻寬,設計上也比較簡單,這二種方式都最好以矽膠(Silicon)等有彈 性的膠來粘合機殼跟蜂嗚片,使蜂嗚片容易振動. 音腔設計不良 蜂鳴片及音腔都有各自的諧振點,如何將二個諧振點配在一起,取得最大的音壓,或是較寬的頻寬,這 就考驗機構設計的能力,會影響音腔諧振的因素有: 材質, 肉厚, 音孔大小,音孔深度,音腔容積..等. 焊接不良 焊線時的焊點大小,位置都要一致,烙鐵的溫度,時間,壓力也要控制,以免把陶瓷片焊壞,造成短路或 絕緣阻抗不足,另外二個焊點的烙鐵需分開使用,因為陶瓷片含大量的鉛,若再來焊銅片,會造成 RoHS檢測不過的問題.
Speaker / 喇叭
Small size speaker but generate higher sound pressure l
In order to increase sound pressure level, we need to vibrate more air molecule by more power under unit time. For the two sizes speakers, the area of diaphragms of the 15mm speakers are around 176mm square (7.5*7.5*3.14), and the 20mm size speakers are around 314mm square(10*10*3.14). The 20mm speakers are only bigger by 5 mm/ 25%, however, the diaphragm are bigger by 78%. Therefore when we input the same power, the 20mm speakers can vibrate more air at the same time, and it result in higher sound pressure level. Generally, the speaker in bigger size can provide lower frequency response which is better for human’s audition. On the other side, we can also provide the smaller speakers more power to make higher sound pressure level, but it is limited by, 1. Acceptability of the diaphragms 2. Thermolysis of the speakers 3. After increasing the power, frequency response will change too(because thicker diaphragm, heavier coil..etc) Therefore, what we can do is reform the material and the structure of the speakers to increase sound pressure level, but if it is possible to choose the bigger size, the problem of the lower sound pressure level will be improved immediately. 想要有大的音壓,就必需在單位時間之內,以更多的能量來推動更多的空氣分子, 以二種尺寸來說,15mm的喇叭,振膜的面積大約是(7.5*7.5*3.14=176mm平方), 而20mm為(10*10*3.14=314mm平方), 直徑20mm的喇叭雖然在尺寸上只大了5mm / 25%, 但在振膜的表面積卻大了78%,在我們給予這二個喇叭一樣的功率時, 所聽到的聲音大小,就會有很大的不同,就是因為20mm的喇叭可以在同一時間內, 推動更多的空氣分子. 而且更大的尺寸,通常低頻響應也會比較好,人耳所感受的的聲音也會比較好聽些, 當然我們也可以給小喇叭更大的功率,使之發出更高的音壓,但受限於 1. 振膜的承受能力, 2. 喇叭散熱能力, 3. 功率加大後頻率響應特性的改變( 膜片需加厚,音圈變重....) 所以我們只好從材料,喇叭的結構來做改善,盡量將小尺寸的喇叭,聲音做大, 但如果尺寸容許的話,換大一號的喇叭,就可以馬上改善聲音不足的問題囉.
The relationship between Watt and SPL 瓦數愈大喇叭會愈大聲嗎?
Base on the premise that all the conditions are the same, if the drive circuit provides enough voltage, the speaker can generate higher sound pressure level. However, with the same voltage, but we use another speaker which applies higher rated power, it will be difficult to drive and output lower sound pressure level.
For example, a circuit can only provide the power of 8 ohm 1 W, in order to generate higher sound pressure level we collocate a 2W speaker, the SPL will be lower instead of higher. It is because with the increasing of the power, the diaphragm should be thickened. The coil also needs to be replaced by thicker wires. However, the thicker wires results in lower im
pedance so we have to wind a bit longer more, and that makes the coil heavier than before. Oppositely, if we use another speaker which loads lower power or with lower impedance, it is likely to make a little bit higher SPL, however the noise or burning down will possibly happen in this condition.
在所有條件一樣的前提,如果驅動線路提供足供電壓,喇叭的聲音是會比較大, 但如果驅動線路所能提供的電壓還是一樣,那換上額定功率愈大的喇叭, 就會發生所謂推不動的狀況,聲音反而會更小, 例如,線路只能發出8ohm 1W的功率,想要更大聲而換用2W的喇叭,反而會小聲, 因為隨著設計功率的加大,喇叭的振膜需要加厚,音圈也可能要換更粗的線, 更粗的線阻抗會降低,只好多繞長一點,音圈的質量就更重, 這些改變會使喇叭效率變差,也就是我們說的變小聲了, 反之如果我們換用承受功率小一點或是阻抗低一點的喇叭, 有可能會大聲一點,但要小心喇叭會有破音,甚至燒毀的情形發生.
About waterproof speaker 防水喇叭
Generally speaking, a paper diaphragm speaker is easily to have the problem of molding or distortion in a humid environment, and is certainly damaged in the water. On the other hand, the mylar diaphragm speaker is normally waterproof that it can work with drip, fog, or even slightly in the water if we use the rubber ring to fix the diaphragm instead of paper ring. Another important thing is that all the diaphragms of the speakers are very thin, and the pressure of water might distort even break the diaphragm if it is too deep. In conclusion, the mechanism design is also very important, especially the joint should be completely sealed in order to reach waterproof function. 一般而言,,紙盆的喇叭在潮濕的使用環境下,比較容易有發霉或是變形的問題,泡水更是會立即的損壞, 而採用塑膠振膜的喇叭大致上都有撥水的能力,亦即水滴,水霧並不會損壞喇叭, 若配上橡膠的墊圈取代紙墊圈,則輕微的泡水也不會有問題, 要注意的是,喇叭的振動膜片都很薄,若水深過深,強大的水壓有可能使膜片變形,甚至破裂!! 當然機構設計上也要注意,喇叭與機構的間隙都必須要密封好,才能泡水的喔!!
Introducing the enclosure of speaker 喇叭音箱介紹
Reflex Enclosure 反射式音箱： It is the most popular design. When the diaphragm of the speaker generates sound, the sound waves which are reflexed from the rear board will be sent out by the reflex pipes. The size and length of the reflex holes and pipes all affect the extension of low frequency, therefore according to the character of the speaker, we should design proper holes and pipes in order to get the best speed and the extension of low frequency. 為最多的設計方式。當單體振膜發聲時，其聲音打到後板所反彈的聲波，藉由反射導管將反相的聲波傳遞出來。其反射孔的大小
與導管的長度皆會影響低頻 的延伸，因此必須根據單體的特性，設計出適合的孔徑與導管的長度，以取得最佳的速度感與良好的低頻延伸。 Closed Enclosure 密閉式音箱： The enclosure is entirely sealed. This design will decrease the operating efficiency even though the low frequent voice is good. Therefore in order to get better control, we must give high power to operate it or the speed of the low frequency will be delayed. 其音箱完全採密閉式，雖然能獲得不錯的低頻音色 設計方式會大大降低喇叭的效率，若要獲得良好的控制力，就必須採用超大功率來推用，否則其低頻的速 度感會有遲頓的現象。 Passive Radiator Enclosure 背輻式音箱： A kind of closed enclosure, mainly adds another low frequent speaker. When it vibrates to generate sound, the passive radiator diaphragm is pushed by air. The disadvantage is low efficiency and speed. 屬於密閉式音箱，主要多增加一支只有振膜的單體(低音單體，當低音振動發聲時，其藉由空氣來推動背輻式振膜的延伸。但有效率低及速度慢的缺點。 Isobaric Type Enclosure 等壓式音箱： It is able to increase the low frequent energy, but the closed design causes the low efficiency. When the two speakers work at the same time, if the sound is out of phase, it affects the results as well. 能增加低頻的能量，但密閉式的設計會造成效率較低,兩支單體同時發聲時，若聲音有不同步的問題產生，也會影響喇叭的暫態反應。 Transmission Line Enclosure 傳輸式音箱： The transmission line enclosure extends the low frequency by a long wave guide; however the over-length of the wave guide may lower the speed of the low frequency. 藉由較長的傳輸管道來增加低頻的延伸，但過長的管道會導致低頻速度慢。 The structure of specialized enclosure 專業用音箱結構： Reflex Enclosure 反射式音箱： The design principle is the same as household reflex enclosure. 其設計原理同家用的反射式音箱。 Horn type Enclosure 號角式音箱： Because of the good diffusivity characteristic of the horn type enclosure, the low-pitched sound is extruded first then sent by the horn to the far place. At the outdoor concert, it is difficult to send the normal low frequency, therefore, we need to use the horn type enclosure to extrude the low frequency and send it. The disadvantage is the worse low frequency extend. 利用號角擴散性佳的特色，先將低音予以擠壓，再經由號角的擺盪，能將聲音傳送較遠處。在戶外大型的演唱會上，一般的低頻並無法傳送較遠處，因此必 須藉由號角的擠壓將低頻傳送出去低音。 缺點為低頻延伸較差。 The enclosures we introduced above can not be completely applied in all the electronic products, it is for consultation; we need to face and solve more problems in reality. 但是,以上介
The difference between the speaker and the receiver 喇叭與受話器的不同
The basic structure of the speaker and the receiver is almost the same; the diaphragm generates the sound by the reaction upon the sound coil and magnet. The main diversities are as below: The different usage ?Depend on the size of the speaker; the distance between the speaker and the user’s ears is normally from several dozens of centimeters to several meters. However we always nestle up a receiver against our ears. The different material of the diaphragm and the sound coil ?In order to bear the higher power, the diaphragm of the speaker is usually thicker than the receiver, the thinnest one is 18u. The larger of the dimension and the power is the heavier the diaphragm will be. ?The receiver takes the lower power, but requests for better low frequency curve; therefore we usually use the diaphragm with the thickness from 6u-12u. ?Besides the diaphragm, the receiver often works with a piece of paper or cloth to adjust the frequency response, which can help to meet all kinds of standards or to match up the resonant box of the mechanism. The different electronic characteristic ?We often see the speaker with impedance of 4-8ohm, the too high impedance leads to the higher power to drive the speaker, normally is from 0.2W to several dozens of watt. ?Depend on the circuit design, the impedance of the receiver is from 16, 32 to 150ohm. The
The difference between the speaker and the receiver 喇叭與受話器的不同
喇叭(Speaker)與受話器(Receiver)的基本構造是大同小異的,都是透過音圈與磁鐵的作用力,帶動振動膜 來發聲, 有幾點較大差異如下: 使用上的不同: 喇叭通常是離使用者的耳機有幾十公分甚至幾十公尺的距離,視喇叭的大小不同而定, 而受話器是緊貼著耳朵來使用的, 膜片,音圈等材質不同: 喇叭需承受較大的功率,故膜片厚度都較厚,從最薄的18u開始,尺寸愈大,功率愈大,膜片就會愈厚重, 受話器的功率小,但要求低頻曲線要好,故一般採用6u-12u的膜片, 除了膜片之外,受話器通常會加貼調音紙或調音布,來調整頻率響應,以符合各種的規範或是來配合機構 的共嗚腔. 電氣特性上的不同: 喇叭最常見的為4-8ohm,太高的阻抗會使喇叭需要更高的電壓才能驅動,0.2W到幾十W都有 受話器從16,32,64ohm到150ohm都有,端看客戶的線路設計匹配,一般的功率只有0.01W到0.1W,
蜂鳴器介紹 Introduction of Buzzer
Rated Voltage: A magnetic buzzer is driven by 1/2 square waves (V o-p). Operating Voltage: For normal operating. But it is not guaranteed to make the minimum SPL under the rated voltage. Consumption Current: The current is stably consumed under the regular operation. Ho
wever, it normally takes three times of current at the moment of starting to work. Direct Current Resistance: The direct current resistance is measured by ammeter directly. Sound Output: The sound output is measured by decibel meter. Applying rated voltage and 1/2 square waves, and the distance of 10 cm. Rated Frequency: A buzzer can make sound on any frequencies, but we suggest that the highest and the most stable SPL comes from the rated frequency. Operating Temp. : Keep working well between -30℃ and +70℃. Rated Voltage 電磁式蜂鳴器以1/2方波(V o-p)驅動 Operating Voltage 可正常工作的適用電壓範圍,但不保證低於額定電壓時仍能達到最低音壓 Consumption Current 正常發聲後,持續的消耗電流量.而啟動瞬間需要的電流,一般至少需要持續耗電流的三倍 Direct Current Resistance 以電表直接量測的直流阻抗 Sound Output 加以額定的電壓,1/2方波,以Db表在距離10cm測得 Rated Frequency 蜂鳴器每一個頻率都仍有聲音,額定的頻率指建議使用的最大,且音壓一致性較好的頻點 Operating Temp. 能維持正常動作的溫度 –30--+70度
How to choose:
Driving methods: AX series with built drive circuit will be the best choice when we cannot provide frequency signal to a buzzer, it only needs direct current. Dimension: Dimension affects frequency, small size result in high frequency. Voltage: Depend on V o-p (1/2 square waves) Fixed methods: From the highest cost to the lowest- DIP, wires/ connector, SMD. Soldering methods: AS series is soldered by hand, the frequency is lower because of the holes on the bottom.On the other hand, we suggest AC series for the reflow soldering, the reliability is better. 驅動方式 若無法提供頻率信號給蜂鳴器工作,可考慮用AX系列(內含驅動線路),給 予直流電壓即可. 尺寸大小 尺寸會影響頻率,小尺寸頻率會較高. 電壓大小 以V 0-P計算 (1/2方波). 固定方式 DIP最便宜,焊線次之,SMD成本最高. 焊接方式 手焊可用AS系列,底部有氣孔頻率可較低,過鍚爐建議使用AC系列, 信賴度較好.
Piezo Buzzer 壓電式蜂鳴器
Rated Voltage: A piezo buzzer is driven by square waves (V p-p). Operating Voltage: For normal operating. But it is not guaranteed to make the minimum SPL under the rated voltage. Consumption Current: The current is stably consumed under the regular operation. However, it normally takes three times of current at the moment of starting to work. Capacitance: A piezo buzzer can make higher SPL with higher capacitance, but it consumes more electricity. Sound Output: The sound output is measured by decibel meter. Applying rated voltage and square waves, and the distance of 10 cm. Rated Frequency: A buzzer can make sound on any frequencies, but we suggest that the highest and the most stable SPL comes from the rated frequency. Operating Temp.: Keep working well between -30℃ and +70℃. Rated Voltage 壓電式蜂
鳴器以方波(V p-p)驅動 Operating Voltage 可正常工作的適用電壓範圍,但不保證低於額定電壓時仍能達到最低音壓 Consumption Current 正常發聲後,持續的消耗電流量.而啟動瞬間需要的電流,一般至少需要持續耗 電流的三倍 Capacitance 陶瓷片的電容量,電容量愈大音壓易做大,但較耗電. Sound Output 加以額定的電壓,方波,以Db表在距離10cm測得 Rated Frequency 蜂鳴器每一個頻率都仍有聲音,額定的頻率指建議使用的最大,且音壓一致性較好 的頻點 Operating Temp. 能維持正常動作的溫度 –30--+70度
Electret Condenser Microphone 電容式麥克風簡介
How to choose
Directional: According to the sound receiving range, the microphone is divided into omnidirectional, unidirectional, and noise canceling. The noise canceling microphone is designed to decay the low frequency far. Most customers use omnidirectional microphone; the unidirectional is only used in some special occasions, therefore we should pay more attention to mechanical and circuit design. Sensitivity: The sensitivity of the microphone affects the recorded volume. However, high sensitivity doesn’t mean a good microphone. The good circuit design is also necessary for getting better results. We suggest selecting a middle common sensitivity at beginning. Too high or too low might affect the lead time and the price. Test condition: The test voltage and the impedance affect the sensitivity of the microphone. Generally speaking, the higher the voltage and the impedance is the better sensitivity we get. Therefore, the test condition is for reference and IQC only, which is usually different to the reality. Dimension: Diameter is from 2mm to 14mm, height is from 1.1mm to 6.7mm. 4*1.5, 6*2.2, 6*2.7, 6*5.0, 9.7mm are common spec. Connecting way: pin, solder pad, SMD, and contact. Due to the diaphragm is easily damaged by high temp. during soldering, therefore we suggest finishing the wires and test the microphone again by us to confirm the stability of quality.
How to choose 如何選用
指向性 : j麥克風根據不同的收音角度,可分為全指向,單指向的,另外還有抗噪型的,是針對遠距離的低 頻加以衰減, 大部份的客戶都是用全指向的麥克風,只有特殊的場合才有需要用到指向性的麥克風,在 機構及線路設計上也有更多需要注意的地方. 靈敏度 : 麥克風的靈敏度會影響到錄音的音量, 但並不是靈敏度高就是好的麥克風,還是需要配合線路 上的設計來取得最好的效果,一開始最好先選用中間,常用的靈敏度,太高太低的可能會影響到交期及價 格. 測試條件 : 測試的電壓, 匹配阻抗都會影響到麥克風的靈敏度, 一般而言,電壓愈高,阻抗愈高,靈敏度都 會變好. 故標準測試條件是供參考或是收料時的驗收用,與實際在使用時常常會不同. 尺寸 : 最小有2mm,最大到14mm, 最薄1.1,最厚到6.7mm, 常
用的是4*1.5, 6*2.2, 6*2.7, 6*5.0, 9.7mm 的. 連結方式 : 有pin, solder pad, SMD,及contact的, 由於麥克風的膜片容易被焊接時的高溫損傷,故建議 由我們為客戶加工線材,並再測試一次,以確定品質的穩定.